HAMEDAN-CAPITAL OF HISTOTY AND CIVILIZATION OF IRAN
Hamedan province with 19491 square kilometers in the west part of Iran, stretches from 33 59’ to 35 48’ latitude and 47 47’ to 49 30’ longitude. It is consisted of 9 townships, 24 cities, 22 districts, 72 rural regions and 1122 villages. Because of enough rainfall, we can see different climates and great progress in agriculture and animal husbandry, in various parts.The highest point of Zagros Mountains, that is extended from northeast to southwest of Iran plateau, is Mount Alvand with an altitude of 3574 meters above the sea level, which is located in Southwest of Hamedan township and is normal boundary between it and Tuyserkan township. Important rivers, of Hamedan are : Simine , Qarahchay, Khoramrood, and Gamasiab. This province is bounded by Zanjan and Qazvin on the north , Lorestan on the south, Markazi province on the east and Kermanshah and Kurdistan, on the west. According to 2006 census, this province has 1703267 inhabitants . Hamedan is Famous because of agricultural products such as beet, potato, wheat, garlic and also animal husbandry and handicraft such as curriery industrial, carpet and short – napped coarse carpet and fretwork. With Lalejin town, hamedan became powerful axis of pottery and ceramic of Iran. Hamedan is fifth cultural & touristic city of country and because of having educational centre such as Bu Ali Sina University , Azad e Eslami & Payam e Noor University and etc; it has known as one of the Powerful educational fields. Also big religious scientists have lived in this province that we can mention some of them as: Shavandy, MollaAli Masumi Hamedani, Bahari, Najafi, Tallohi, Khonsary, Andalibzade and Mosavi and some who are living now are: Ayatollah Noory and Sabery Hamedani. Famous men such as Avicenna , Babataher, Mohtasham Kashani, Sheikh Fakhr ol Din Araghi, Mirzade Eshghi,Arefe Qazvini, Maftoon Hamedani,Ghobar and Ghomam Hamedani had lived or spend long time in this province and martyries Moftteh and Ghoddoosi had born and rear in hamedan.
Historical background of Hamedan
This province and its civilization, can be said to be one of the historical and ancient parts of Iran. Relics of this area confirm this fact. Median’s immigration to west of Iran and the vicinity of current Hamadan, started about 3500 B.C, and their cultural mixing with inhabitants of the city gradually lead to the first central government in Iranian plateau. Achamenidae called Hamedan, Hegmataneh (place to assemble) that being transformed Stone carvings in arrowhead writing, lots of gold and silver tools and remains of stone castles have been found from Achamenian era. During the Parthian era , Teesfoon was the capital of the country , and Hamedan became the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. From Parthian era there is the statue of Stone Lion and the Partian cemetery and remains of a temple in Nahavand. After the Parthians, one the main mints in the Sassanid era was located in Hamadan and various coins of this era have been found. Nahavand, too, was a very important city for the Sassanids and contained a very strong fortress and one of the seven Sassanid Generals resiances in this city. In 23 A.H, when the war of Nahavand took place and Hamedan came into the hands of the Arabs, at times it thrived and at times witnessed poverty Arabs, during their attack on Iran, named conquering Nahavand victories the “victory of victories” During the Safavid era the city thrived. The city of Hamedan lay on the (Silk Road) and even in the last centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of the country. Most cities of the Province especially Hamedan, Nahavand and Tuyserkan are very ancient. Islamic thoughts and beliefs resulted profound changes in arts and architecture.
Hamedan Township, with an area of 4118 s.q.k, is located between Alvand slopes toward the eastern border of the province. The city of Hamedan is the centre of the province and is at distance of 337 k.m, from Tehran. Hamedan Township is bounded on the north by Razan & Kaboodarahang,on the south by Tuyserkan & Malayer on the east by Markazi province and on the west by Bahar. Mount Alvand is located on the southeastern side of Hamedan and natural boundary between Hamedan city and Tuyserkan township, some parts of Razan and Famanin plains, Qahavand, Dasht-e Nashar are stretched along them. Alvand is the highest peak of this area with an altitude of 3584 meters above the sea level and the lowest part is Amrabad, the region where Qarahchai River flowes out of the province with an altitude of 1600 meters above the sea level. The average altitude of Hamedan Township is 1820 meters. According to 2006 census, this township had 63730 inhabitants. It is consisted of five cities: Hamedan, Famenin , Qahavand , Maryanaj & joraghan . 3 countries and 12 rural districts, and 111 villages Persian language is spoken in the cities, and in villages, they speak Turkish.
Mount Alvand Range is one of the natural and attractive features of Hamedan Province, which is located in the southern part of Hamedan and north of Tuyserkan. Alvand, the highest peak with an altitude of 3574 meters above sea level is the natural border between these two cities. This mount runs from northwest to southeast and divides the province into two northern and southern parts.This mountain with deep and green valleys, springs, prairies, peaks, beautiful green settings etc. attract thousands of people.
Hegmataneh museum and ancient city
This complex is located over a hill with 25 acre extent that several things from achaemenian period and it’s last and next is discovered from it, that some of them are kept in Hegmataneh museum and a great part of them are kept in Tehran and out of Iran museums. In addition to the museum, some works such as St Mari church and holly stepanous, have increased the attractions of this complex.
This dome is a place from Saljuqid period that is located in Alavian Street, and is tomb of two men of Sheriffs (Prophet Generation) Of Alavi dynasty. It’s ambience is from masterworks of Ilkhanid period.
Stone lion statue
This statue is located in a square with the same name. It’s sculpture style and it’s adjacency to the Ascanid fortress , and also discovery of Ascanid coffins from this site , relates it to the forenamed period.
This building that is used as general bureau of cultural heritage, handcrafts and tourism of Hamedan, is located in Aref Qazvini Street and is in a nice garden belonging to late Qajar period.
This building that belongs to 7th Hijri century, is tomb of Sheikholeslam Hassan-ibne Attar and a group of Saljuqid generals that were lived between 488 and 567 Hijri in Hamedan. This monument is located in adjacency of Ibne Sina girl high school.
Laljin Town (Bahar)
Laijin town is located in Bahar city in north of Hamedan. This town have a global fame for it’s potteries, that history of this industry reaches to 7th Hijri century (ac 12th century). Handcrafts of ceramic and pottery, have made the Lalejin as an center of tourism in the province of Hamedan and all tourists, buy some souvenirs during visit of town.
Mashahir (famuse men) Museum
This building that is located in middle of Dr.Shariati Street, shows the big and nice statue from Abou Ali Sina, Sheikh Razi Artimani, Khajeh Rashideddin Fazlollah, Ayatollah Bahari, Ayatollah Nahavandi, Karimkhan zand, Einolghozat Hamedani, Habaquq Nabi, martyr Mofatteh , and Seyyed Jamaledin Asadabadi and a collection of pictures from sights and Hamedan social life in contemporary period.
Qalaa (castle) bath-museum
The ancient Qalaa bath is located in a noble and ancient sector of Hamedan named Qashoq Tarashan (spoon makers) in Dr. Shariati Street and today is used as anthropology museum and traditional resturant and welcomes to all of tourists and travelers.
Ancient fortress and temple of noushijan
This site is located in 60km of Hamedan. To this time, 6 party of excavation in this hill has executed that resulted to discovery of 3 historical period, so that the upper layer belongs to Parth period, medieval layer to achaemenian period, and lower layer relates to Maad’s period.
Museum-bath of Haj aqa Torabd
This bath is located in ancient part of Nahavand city in Ali abad Alley, in the west, there are nice rooms and vaults and in north there is alcove and in outside, a scene from Shahnameh (fight of Rostam and devil) with seven color tiles is printed.
Nahavand Mirages ( Headwaters )
The word Sarab (headwater) consists of two parts:
Sar ( head ) and Aab (water). It means water source
or headspring. In this area rainwater penetrates in
to the ground after dissolving the limestones. Then
it runs as spring. The volume of water in these
springs is high.
1- Gyan Forest and Headwater
This headwater with clear, waterfal and gushing
springs is located in a distance of 21 kilometers
southwest of Nahavand on the foot of Mount Garo
(Zagros range). On the south, it is bounded by
Garo and on the west By Zafar Abad and Mihan
Abad villages. Annually, its average flow rate is
about 2500 liters per second, Its surplus pours in
to Gamasyab river, after using for drinking, and
irritating purposes. Gyan Old Hill is located in a
distance of two k.m, along this headwater, also
there is a natural forest with an area of 100 hectares
including old and bulky trees like oak, wild plum,
doughnut, wilow, ash, greengage, prunella, vine,
fig, chestnut, pear and Persian turpentine.This
natural forest is one of the recreative parks in the
west part of the country. Based on the turism
potentials of Gyan headwater and forest, recently
a study has been conducted and some
developmental activities have been planed.
Meanwhile, it is an interesting natural attraction.
One can go there via Nahavand-Kangavar road,
Toward Gyan village.
2- Gamasyab Headwater
It is headspring of one of the longest rivers in Iran,
which springs from Garo Rocky Mount slopes
Nahavand-Noor Abad ( Lorestan road ) in 19 k.m,
south east of Nahavand and runs along Mount
Garo. Rivers like Haram Abad, Qelqelrood and
Khorramrood, empty in to it. After irritating the
agricultural fields in Nahavand plain, it empties in
to Gharahsu, Karkhe and finally to Hoor ol-Azim.
In Kermanshah it is Known as Gharahsu, in Lorestan
as Seimareh and in Khuzestan as Karkheh. Average
flow of these springs is about 5000 liters per second.
In upper part of the headwater, there is a natural
cave and different trees have been planted around
- A hydroelectric power station and some
pisciculture pools are constructed along the river.
This gushing spring with natural features is one
of the most important tourism attractions in the
Habaquq is from Israeli 12 prophet, and from Mousa (a) generation , his name addressed in Torah and have special position in Jewish people, this prophet was lived about 700 (be), in the time of prophet Dniel. The tomb structure belongs to Saljuqid period.
Toyserkan’s Masoudi house
This building located in north of Toyserkan city and date of it’s construction is 1290Hijri (1870ac) in Qajar period. The nicest part of building is alcove room that on it’s walls is printed some pictures of kings, from Kianid until Qajar period, mirror working, arcographs.wall prints, and ceiling prints are ambience of this part of the building.
Imamzadeh Azhar monument
Is located in Darjazin county of Razan city of Hamedan. This structure is made from brick and belongs to Ilkhanid period and reconstructed with order of Shah Abbas in 1056 Hijri(1636ac). Azhar in from successors of Imam Sajjad.
Handicrafts are always considered as one of the travel purposes and tourism attractions specially, handicrafts of countries with an old history, excellent cultures, arts and old civilization like Iran. They are also symbols of ideological, historical, artistic and cultural values and messages. In addition to its commemorative characters, it is one of the cultural exchange ways and making them familiar with other countries’ people. Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and beautiful carpets. The most important handicraft of the province is earthenware and ceramics, and a place called ‘Lalejin’ (25 km. north of Hamadan) is famous for this handicraft. Besides earthenware and ceramics, there are the followings-carpet and‘Glim’weaving (ora coarse carpet), clothing (mainly to do with the nomads), jajeem’ (or a loosely woven woolen material), leather work, ‘geeveh’ (a local foot-ware), sweet-meats and grape syrup.
Mausoleum of Avicenna
Abou Ali Sina was born in 370Hijri(1005am) in Bokhara and his complex of museum and tomb is located in middle of a square with the same name in Hamedan city.
The mausoleum of Sheikh-oc-Ra’ is Hossin ebn-e Abdollah ebn-e Sina was built in 1953 by the Iranian Monuments Socicty, on the occasion of this universally renowned philosophers 1000th birth anniversary. In the construction of the building, the model of the Gonbad-e Qabus, i.e the mausoleum of Sham-ol-Ma’ali Qabus ebn-e Voshmgir. Who was the contemporary of the Sheikh, and symbols of ancient Iranian, Greek and Egyptian architecture. In an allusion to to this scientist’s mastery in the sciences of various nations, are harmoniously combined with principles of modern architecture.
Alisadr cave is the most wonderful and the longest rowingable water cave in world, is located in 70km of Hamedan. A moist atmosphere, absolute silence, exciting islands, possibility of rowing and cave walking, is from characteristics of this cave.
On 28.9.1963 Hamedan sina mountaineers with 14 members visited the cave and investigated its different parts. In 1973, Hamedan mountaineers extended the entrance hole And then it was open for public from 1975 to present time . Geologists believe that the rocks of this mountain belong to the second geological period i.e.Jurassic (190-136 millions year 390).
Water of the cave is colorless and odorless. In addition, it has a natural taste. And its PH (acidity) is nearly neutral. The depth of water varies from 0.5 to 14 meters.
The Ganjnameh inscriptions
The Ganjnameh inscriptions, near Hamedan, were first studied in 1840 – 41 by the french painter and archaeologist Eugene Flandin, who was accompanied by Pascal Coste, After them, Sir Henry Rawlinson, the British explorer, made a name for himself by deciphering cuneiform characters with the help of these inscriptions, Thus, the rock – face inscriptions of Ganjnameh provided him with the key that allowed him to read Darius, inscription at Bistoon and reveal many undiscovered treasures in the history of this land, therefore, these historic remains constitute one of the most illustrious cuneiform inscription from the early Achaemenian period.
The historic inscriptions of Ganjnameh are located 5 kilometers southwest of present-day Hamedan, at the end of the lush valley of Abbasabad and at the beginning of the road connecting Hamedan to Towiserkan and western Iran. As in the Achaemenian period this itinerary was an important stretch of the ancient Royal Road, which connected Hegmataneh, the Achaemenian’s summer capital, on the foothills of Mt. Alvand, to Babylon, in central Mesopotamia, it was a safe and busy road in ancient times- In addition, as it led to babylon, it was also considered a sacred road and therefore offered an ideal site for the kings of this dynasty to remind passers-by of their ancestors and their own glorious power.
The Ganjnameh inscriptions appear on a large rock, in three languages (ancient Persian, Elamite and Babylonian), each in 20 lines of cuneiform characters running from left to right.
One of these belongs to Darius and the other on the right-belongs to to his son, Xerxes I. Both of these inscriptions are in 120 lines and from left to right. They are in cuneiform and in three languages: ancient Farsi, Elamites and Babylonian.
These inscriptions have long been known by different names : Sang Nebeshteh, Nebesht-e- hodayan, Dadmehan, Tanbabar, Katibe-ha-ye Alvand Jangnameh and Ganjnameh, the latter two being most currently used In recent centuries.
The appellation of Ganjnameh, which means “ treasure narrative “ in Persian, has led some to believe that the secret of a treasure is hidden within thes Inscription, and that of Jangnameh originates either from it’s connotation evoking the wars carried out by past kings, or from a transposition in popular speech of Ganj (treasure) with Jang (war).
Is located in the nice valley of Alvand in 5km from Hamedan. Telekabin line connects two important touristic zone, Ganjnameh and Mishan field. This complex contains coffee shop , Jumping dive, Bonji jumping, restaurant, aerobic parallel, rock climbing wall and sport facilities.
DE = DARIUS, ELVEND ( ALVAND )
( ENGLISH TRANSLATION )
- A great God is Ahuramazda ,
- who created this earth ,
- who created yonder
- sky, who created
- man, who created happiness
- for man,
- who made Darius
- King, one
- king of many,
- one lord of
- I am
- the great King, King
- of kings,
- King of countries containing
- all kings of men,
- King in this great earth
- far and wide,
- son of Hystasees,
- an Achaemenian.
XE = XERXES, ELVEND ( ALVAND )
( ENGLSH TRANSLATION )
- A great God is Ahuramazda,
- the greatest of the gods,
- who created this earth,
- who created yonder sky,
- who created man,
- who created happiness
- for man, who
- made Xerxes King
- one king of
- many, one
- lord of many.
- I am Xerxe,
- the great King, King
- of kings,
- King of countries containing
- all kinds of men, King
- in this great earth
- far and wide, son of
- King Darius,
- an Achaemenian.
Cavity known as” The French”
Early in the 19th century European tourists with pseudo archaeological goals and on the search for the ancient city of Medes i.e. Ek-batan (Hegmataneh) with seven golden and silver ramparts one inside the other, arrived in the modern city of Hamedan. J.De Morgan was among the first ones to fulfill pseudo archaeological studies in Hamedan. Afterwards in 1913 a team under the supervision of Ch.Fossey together with his colleague Ch.Virolleaud performed excavations for 6 months in different parts of Hamedan including Hegmataneh hill. Fossey never published the results of his excavations in Hamedan. Later N.Cheevalier published the documents related to the excavations. One can still notice the traces of Fossey’s huge cavities. There are two cavities near the museum. The first one is in west side of the museum known to people as “The French” cavity and the other one known as “laying Camel” cavity at a distance of 100 meters from the south east side of the museum. In the first cavity he found some relics such as pedestals and dispersed stone floor tiles, when in the other cavity he found pillar and statue pedestals.
The Central Site
Iranian archaeological body under the supervision of Dr.Mohammad Rahim Saraaf, during years 1983, 1984, 1988 and 1994 performed an excavation in the aforesaid sites in an area of 50*20 meters in the center of the ancient hill located on the northern part of the cavity known as “The French”, in order to access relics and remains of the ancient city.
The achievement of the archaeological body was discovering a set of square-shaped building in a depth of 2 up to 5 meters of the hill’s surface, made at the size of 17.5*17.5 meters.
The entrance to every architectural unit leads to a porch and a central entrance hall in the center and three lateral chambers on two sides. These buildings have been constructed symmetrically in two parallel rows backing each other and between every two rows of architectural units a passage has been provided which is 3.5 meters in width and run at the direction of north east to south west. The passages are at a distance of 35 meters from each other and are parallel to each other.
All the houses built are of the same plan. The Iranian archaeological body discovered the architectural system of the ancient city in the central site, which resulted in their success in finding the expansion trend in the other sites.
Baba Taher is one of the famous Gnostics and poets of the 4th century AH. He was born in 326 AH and passed away 85 years later. Baba Taher’s Do-Bayties (double distiches) or songs are known as Phahlaviat. Baba Taher mausoleum was constructed in the years 1967 – 1970 by Eng. Mohsen Furughi on behalf of the National Monuments Association of Iran.This mausoleum is on the basis of an octagon. Eight pillars of the tower, ston slabs of the tomb and its base, together with the steps and the surrounding paved area are all of sculptured granite. The main structure is to the dimensions of 10m. x 10m. and has entrances along with light sutures . Within the internal area are 24 pieces of marble affixed, each having a verse from the poems of Baba Taher. The graves of other Iranian great men are around Baba Taher mausoleum, such as:
-Mohammad-ibne- Abdolaziz, man of letter in 3th century AH.
-Abolfath Asad (one of the jurisprudences of 6th century AH).
-Haj Mirza Ali Naghi Kowsar (one of the scientists of the 13th century AH).
-Maftoon Hamedani (one of the poets of the 14th century AH).
-Hakim Safa-ol-Hagh Hamedani (one-of the contemporary scintists of Iran).
Baba Taher Mausoleum was registered as an Iranian National Monuments No. 1780, dated 1997.