Iran is an incredible place to visit. If for no other reason than its continuous history of some 7000 years (a distinction few countries can claim), it would be well worth seeing for its diversity of landscapes, monuments, customs and lifestyles that make Iran attractive in any season. About one million historical sites exist in Iran. It is obvious that even the most interesting of these can be visited only by making numerous trips to the country. These trips are all the more pleasant because visitors to Iran never leave it without memories of its wonderfully hospitable people .Visit Iran ,to get a first-hand experience of this fascinating, welcoming country.
Conventional short form:
The name Iran comes from the Old Persian word meaning the land of the Aryans. Iran has been the name of this country at least since the Sassanid period. However, until 1935, the English-speaking world knew this country as Persia, a legacy of the Greeks who named the region after its most important province. Pars (Present -day Fars).
Total: 1,648,195 sq.km
Land: 1,636 milion sq. km
Water: 12,000 sq.km
The size of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy and Switzerland all combined.
Total: 5440 km
Border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan – Naxcivan exdave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
mostly arid or semiarid subtropical along the Caspian coast
rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts and mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts.
Caspian Sea -28m
Damavand Peak 5671 m
Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Population growth rate:
0.883% (2009 est)
Persian 51% , Azeri 24% , Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%. Kurd 7%, Arab 3% , Lur 2% , Baluch 2%, Turkman 2%, other 1%
Persian and dialects 84%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Baluchi 1%, Arabic 1%, other 3%
Muslim 98% (Shia 89% , Sunni 9%), Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and other 2%
30 provinces (ostanha, singular- otsan):
Ardabii, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr. Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorasan-e Jonubi (South Khorasan), Khorasan-e Razavi ( (Razavi Khorasan), Khorasan-e Shomali (North Khorasan), Khuzestan, Kohgiluey va Boyer Ahmad, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan.
2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 expand powers of presidency and eliminate the Prime Ministry
The constitution codifies Islamic principals of government.
Unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Eslamic Parliament of Iran or Majles (290 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
A mixture of state ownership of oil and other large enterprises , village agriculture, and small scale private trading and services ventures.
Oil, gas, agriculture, carpets
Petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments.
Wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, diary products, wool, caviar
Oil and oil products 85%, carpet, fruits and nuts, iron and steel, chemicals
Iranian rials (IR )
Iran’s flag is composed of three equal horizontal bands of green, white and red (from top to bottom). Centered in the white band is the red emblem-a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom.
The words Allaho Akbar, meaning ((God is Great)) are repeated 11 times along each of the inner edge of the green and red bands in white letters in angular Kufit script.